When it comes to math, students may encounter a variety of difficulties that can impede their progress at any stage of their academic development. While the exact causes of these issues are not yet fully understood, experts have identified five primary math skill types that can be problematic. These skill types are not mutually exclusive, and students may experience one or more deficits simultaneously. Any of these math skill deficiencies can negatively affect a student’s ability to learn and perform math effectively (Misunderstood Minds . Math Difficulties, n.d.).
The first math skill type that can pose a challenge for students is incomplete mastery of number facts. These are the basic computations, such as addition and multiplication, that students must memorize in the early grades of elementary school. Without a firm grasp of these foundational concepts, students may struggle to progress to more advanced mathematical topics
Another potential challenge is computational weakness. Some students may struggle with math despite a good understanding of concepts because they are inconsistent in their computational skills. They may make mistakes due to simple oversights or misunderstandings, such as misreading a sign or placing numbers in the wrong column. These students may require extra support and remedial instruction, even if they possess the potential for higherlevel mathematical thinking
A third challenge that some students may face is difficulty transferring knowledge between abstract or conceptual math topics and the real world. This skill is crucial in understanding what mathematical symbols represent in the physical world and can be a stumbling block for some students
Making connections is another important skill that some students may struggle with. Without the ability to connect mathematical concepts, students may find it difficult to anchor these skills in a meaningful or relevant way. This can make it more difficult for them to recall and apply mathematical knowledge in new situations
Language difficulties can also pose a problem for some students, particularly those who struggle with reading, writing, and speaking. In math, these students may struggle with the oftenchallenging terminology and may have difficulty understanding written or verbal directions and word problems
Finally, a rare but severe issue that some students may face is an inability to effectively visualize math concepts. These students may struggle with perceptual skills, which can make it difficult to understand and solve complex mathematical problems that require visualization. These challenges may require extra support and accommodations to help these students succeed (Misunderstood Minds . Math Difficulties, n.d.).
Signs of Math Skills Difficulties
Expresses negative comments about math 

Gets anxious around math 

Output difficulties 

Organizational difficulties 

Attention difficulties 

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